and geriatric healthy female Beagle dogs were fed 0 or 20 mg astaxanthin daily
for 16 weeks to examine modulation of mitochondrial function. Fasted blood was
sampled at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Mitochondria membrane permeability, ATP
production, cytochrome c oxidase/reductase and number were assessed in
leukocytes, while astaxanthin uptake, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric
oxide, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl were
measured in plasma.
increased complex III cytochrome c oxidoreductase but decreased 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine
and protein carbonyl. Mitochondrial function improved in both young and geriatric dogs by increasing ATP production, mitochondria mass and cytochrome c
oxidoreductase activity, especially in geriatric dogs compared with young dogs.
Astaxanthin feeding also increased the reduced glutathione to oxidized
glutathione ratio in young dogs and decreased nitric oxide in both young and
astaxanthin improved mitochondrial function in blood leukocytes, most likely by
alleviating oxidative damage to cellular DNA and protein.
Source: J.S. Park et al., 2012. Astaxanthin modulates
age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy dogs. J Anim Sci online October 2012. doi: 10.2527/jas.2012-5341J
Tomato pomace has the potential to provide additional nutrition and health benefits
With the availability of quality ingredients declining, perhaps we need to explore this category
What is this quiet, unassuming ingredient, and should it be there?
It's an "Intel inside" type of molecule -- but also a problem child
It's the finishing touch that can meet both owner and pet needs.
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